Signs and Symptoms of Depression

What is Depression?

Sadness, sadness, loss of interest or enjoyment of daily activities: these are familiar symptoms for all. But if they persist and significantly affect our lives, it can be a depression.

sadness, loss of interest

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 7.6% of over 12s suffer from depression in two weeks. This is significant and shows the extent of the problem.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is the most prevalent disease in the world and the leading cause of disability. They estimate that 350 million people worldwide are affected by depression.

Quick Facts about Depression:

• Depression seems to be more common among women than men.
• Symptoms are a lack of pleasure and little interest in things that bring happiness to the person.
• Life events, such as bereavement, create mood swings that can usually be distinguished from the characteristics of depression.
• The causes of depression are not fully understood, but probably a complex combination of genetic, biological, environmental and psychosocial factors.


Depression is a mood disorder characterized by persistent mood and a feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It is a persistent problem, not a passenger, with an average duration of 6 to 8 months.

The diagnosis begins with a consultation with a psychologist.

The diagnosis of depression starts with a consultation with a doctor or mental health specialist. It is important to seek the help of a health professional to rule out the various causes of depression, to ensure accurate differential diagnosis, and to ensure safe and effective treatment.

As with most doctor visits, a physical examination can be done to check for physical causes, and coexistence of diseases. Questions are also asked to "make a story" to determine symptoms, their time, etc.

Some questionnaires help doctors assess the severity of depression. For example, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale contains 21 questions, and the grades obtained to describe the severity of the condition. The 
Hamilton Scale is one of the most commonly used assessment tools by physicians who evaluate depression.

sadness, loss of interest

What is not classified as depression?

Depression is different from the mood swings people experience in a normal life. Temporary emotional responses to the challenges of everyday life do not represent depression.
Similarly, the feeling of pain resulting from the death of someone close to you is not a depression if it does not exist. However, depression can be associated with pain: when depression follows a loss, psychologists call it a "complicated duel."

Signs and symptoms

The symptoms are a decreased interest in enjoyable activities and a lower mood.
The symptoms of depression can be:
• depressed mood
• Less interest or pleasure for activities already appreciated, loss of sexual desire
• involuntary weight loss (without diet) or loss of appetite
• Insomnia (sleep disorder) or hypersomnia (excessive sleep)
• psychomotor agitation, for example, agitation, from top to bottom
• Delay psychomotor skills, such as decreased exercise and speech
• fatigue or loss of energy
Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
• Limited ability to think, focus or make decisions
• recurrent thoughts of death or suicide or attempted suicide

Life Hacks: How to deal with postpartum depression
If you recently had a baby and you feel weak, it may be postpartum depression.


The Reasons

The causes of depression are not fully understood and may not depend on a single source. Depression is likely due to a complex combination of factors including:


Depression has a wide range of causes and possible treatments.

• genetics

• biological: changes in neurotransmitter values

• Environment

• psychological and social (psychosocial)

Some people are at higher risk for depression than others. Risk factors include:

• Life events: pain, divorce, work problems, relationships with friends and family, financial problems, health issues or acute stress.

• Personality: People with less effective coping strategies or trauma from previous lives are more likely.

• Genetic factors: A first-degree relative with depression increases the risk.

• The Trauma of the child.

• Some prescription drugs: These include corticosteroids, some beta-blockers, interferon, and other prescription drugs.

• Substance abuse for recovery: Alcohol abuse, amphetamines, and other drugs are closely linked to depression.

• A head injury existed.

• You had a major depressive episode: This increases the risk of later depression.

• Chronic Pain Syndromes: These and other chronic diseases such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease make depression more likely.



Depression is a treatable mental illness. The management of depression consists of three components:

• Support from discussing practical solutions and stressors to educating family members.

• Psychotherapy, also called conversion therapy, such as B. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

• Pharmacological treatment, especially antidepressants.



Psychological or conversational therapies for depression include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy and treatment to solve problems. In mild cases of depression, psychotherapy is the first treatment option; in moderate and severe cases, they can be used with another treatment.

CBT and interpersonal therapy are the two main types of psychotherapy for depression. CBT can be given in individual sessions with a therapist in person, in a group or by telephone. Some recent studies suggest that CBT can be efficiently delivered by computer

Interpersonal therapy helps patients to identify the emotional issues that affect relationships and communication, and how these, in turn, can influence and change one's mood.


Antidepressant medication

Antidepressants are prescription medications from a doctor. Medications for moderate to severe depression are used, but they are not recommended for children and are prescribed with caution in adolescents.

There are several classes of drugs for the treatment of depression:

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

• monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors)

• tricyclic antidepressants

• atypical antidepressants


Selective Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRI)

Each class of antidepressants works on a different neurotransmitter. Drugs should be continued after the doctor's prescription, even after the symptoms have improved, to prevent a relapse.

A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning states that "In some children, adolescents and young adults, 'antidepressants may increase thoughts or suicidal behavior in the first months of treatment'.

Concerns should always be raised by a physician, including any intention to stop taking antidepressants.


Exercise and other therapies

Aerobic exercise can help combat mild depression by increasing endorphin levels and stimulating the mood-related neurotransmitter norepinephrine.

Brain stimulation therapies, including electroconvulsive therapy, are also used in depression. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation sends magnetic impulses to the brain and can be effective in depressive disorders.


Electroconvulsive therapy

Serious cases of depression that have not responded to drug treatment may benefit from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); This is especially effective for psychotic depression.


Unipolar and bipolar depression

When the predominant feature is a depressive mood, we speak of unipolar depression. However, if it is characterized by manic and depressive episodes separated by periods of normal mood, it is referred to as bipolar disorder (formerly known as manic depression).
Unipolar depression can include anxiety and other symptoms, but not manic episodes. However, studies show that in about 40% of cases, people with bipolar disorder are depressed, making it difficult to distinguish between the two conditions.

Major depression with psychotic features

This condition is characterized by depression accompanied by psychosis. Psychosis can include delusions, false beliefs, and detachment from reality or hallucinations, by tracking down things that do not exist.

Postpartum depression

Women often experience "melancholy" with a newborn, but postpartum depression, also known as postnatal depression, is more serious.

Major depression with a seasonal pattern

Previously known as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), this condition is associated with the decline of daylight in winter: Depression occurs during this season but increases the rest of the year and in response to light therapy.

Countries with long or severe winters seem to be the most affected by this condition.
Next Post »