Anxiety: causes, symptoms, and treatments

Anxiety: causes, symptoms, and treatments

Fear is a common term for many disorders that cause nervousness, and anxiety.
These disorders affect the way we feel and behave and can cause physical symptoms. Mild anxiety is vague and disturbing, while serious anxiety can seriously affect daily life.
Anxiety disorders affect 40 million people in the United States (USA). It is the most common group of mental illnesses in the country. However, only 36.9% of people are treated with this disease.


What is fear?

Fear is a natural human response to stressful situations, but it becomes a condition when it occurs frequently without triggering.
The American Psychological Association (APA) defines anxiety as "an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, anxiety and physical changes, such as an increase in blood pressure."
It is important to know the difference between normal anxiety and an anxiety disorder that requires medical attention.


Faced with potentially harmful or disruptive triggers, anxiety is not only normal but also necessary for survival.
From the first days of humanity, the approach of predators and received threats has triggered alerts in the body, allowing an individual to evade maneuvers. These alarms manifest themselves in the form of a high heartbeat, sweating and greater sensitivity to the environment.
An adrenaline rush in response to danger causes these reactions. This adrenaline rush is called "fight or flight". Prepare people to face their bodies or flee from security threats.
For most modern humans, it is less urgent to guide larger animals and face imminent danger. The concerns now focus on work, money, family life, health and other critical issues that require a person's attention without necessarily demanding the "fight or flight" response.

This feeling of nervousness about an important life event or a difficult situation is a natural echo of the first "fight or flight" reaction. This can always be vital; For example, the worry of being hit by a car when crossing the road means that a person instinctively considers both ways to avoid danger.

Anxiety disorder

The duration or severity of an anxiety sensation can sometimes be disproportionate to the trigger or initial stressor. Physical symptoms such as high blood pressure and nausea can also occur. These responses go beyond anxiety and become an anxiety disorder.
Anxiety disorders occur when a reaction is not proportionate to what can normally be expected in a situation. APA describes a person with an anxiety disorder as "recurrent intrusive thoughts or worries".


Anxiety disorders can be divided into six main types. These include:
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is a chronic disorder that involves excessive and persistent anxiety and concerns about non-specific events, objects, and life situations. It is the most common anxiety disorder. People with GAD are not always able to identify the cause of their anxiety.
Panic disorder: brief or sudden convulsions of intense terror and anxiety disorder. These attacks can cause tremors, confusion, dizziness, nausea, and difficulty breathing. Panic attacks often occur and evolve rapidly, reaching their maximum in 10 minutes. However, they can take hours.
Panic disorders usually appear after scary experiences or prolonged stress, but can also occur without triggering. A person who experiences a panic attack can understand it as a life-threatening illness. Panic attacks can also lead to drastic behavioral changes to prevent future attacks.

Phobia: It's an irrational fear and the avoidance of an object or situation. Phobias are different from other anxiety disorders because they are related to a specific cause. Anxiety can be recognized as irrational or unnecessary, but the person still cannot control the fear. The triggers of a phobia can be as diverse as situations, animals or everyday objects.
Social anxiety disorder: This is a fear of being judged negatively by others in social situations or for fear of public embarrassment. This includes a variety of emotions such as stage fright, fear of intimacy and fear of humiliation. This disorder can lead people to avoid public situations and human contact to such an extent that everyday life becomes extremely difficult.
OCD: This is an anxiety disorder characterized by repetitive, painful and intrusive thoughts or actions. OCDs generally know that their compulsions are neither rational nor irrational, but they relieve their anxiety. People with obsessive-compulsive disorder can obsessively clean their belongings or hands or constantly check locks, ranges or switches.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is the fear of past trauma, such as a military battle, sexual assault, hostage-taking or serious accident. PTSD often leads to retrospective memories, and the person can change his behavior to avoid triggers.
Separation Anxiety Disorder: characterized by severe anxiety when separated from a person or place providing security. Separation sometimes leads to panic symptoms. It is considered a disorder if the reaction after separation is excessive or inappropriate.

What causes anxiety

What causes anxiety?

It is believed that brain chemistry in some cases causes anxiety.
Anxiety disorders have a complex causal network, which includes:
• Environmental factors such as stress related to a personal relationship, work, school, finances, traumatic events or even lack of oxygen at high altitudes
• Genetics
• Medical factors, such as side effects of medication, symptoms of a disease or stress associated with a serious underlying disease
• Brain chemistry
• Use or recover an illegal substance
Excessive anxiety is usually triggered by the stress of everyday life and any combination of the above. It is usually a reaction to external forces, but it is possible that feelings of anxiety come from someone who claims that the worst will happen.
Anxiety can result from a combination of one or more of the above. For example, a person can respond to stress at work by drinking more alcohol or taking illegal substances, which increases their anxiety.


A psychiatrist can diagnose anxiety and identify possible causes.
The doctor will take a careful medical and personal history, perform a physical examination and request laboratory tests as necessary. These tests can provide useful information about a medical condition that can cause anxiety symptoms.
To get a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a person must:
• Has excessive concerns and worries about several different events or activities for at least six months
• It is difficult to control anxiety
• In the last six months, at least three symptoms of anxiety take more days than necessary, including restlessness, fatigue, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbances and difficulty concentrating
The symptoms must affect daily life and lead to absences from work or school.
If there is no specific cause of anxiety and anxiety, a doctor diagnoses GAD. In cases that are related to a clearer cause, a different diagnosis can be achieved.

symptoms of anxiety

Common symptoms of anxiety

Symptoms of anxiety can be dizziness, sweating, and tremors.
There are different anxiety disorders, each with different symptoms. However, the common symptoms may be:
• Sweat
• Vertigo
• Trembling
Increased or irregular heartbeat
• Back pain
• Agitation and fatigue
• Muscle tension
• Scare easily
• Recurring and persistent concerns, with or without known stressors
• Avoid certain situations of concern and the quality of life
It is important that temporary feelings of anxiety be considered temporary to increase anxiety and risk of anxiety disorder. However, it is also important not to ignore the symptoms of anxiety disorders in order to be treated in time.
People with anxiety disorders often have symptoms similar to clinical depression and vice versa. It is rare for a patient to have symptoms of any of these conditions.

Anti-anxiety treatments


Psychotherapy is a recommended treatment for anxiety.
The treatment of an anxious person depends on the causes of anxiety and individual preferences. Often, the treatments consist of a combination of psychotherapy, behavior therapy and drugs.
Alcohol dependence, depression or other conditions can sometimes have an effect on the individual that the treatment of anxiety disorder must wait for a ground condition to be controlled.


In some cases, anxiety can be treated at home without the supervision of a doctor. However, this may be limited to shorter periods of anxiety and obvious causes.
There are several exercises and actions recommended to deal with this type of anxiety:
Stress management: Stress control can help limit potential triggers. Be aware of the pressures and delays, create lists to handle the toughest tasks, and commit to studying or working for free.
Relaxation Techniques: Simple activities can be used to relax the mental and physical signs of anxiety. These include meditation, deep breathing exercises, long baths, rest in the dark, and yoga.
Exercises to replace negative thoughts with positive thoughts: Make a list of the negative thoughts you are experiencing and write a list of positive and credible thoughts to replace them. Success and control of a certain fear can also be beneficial if the symptoms of anxiety are related to a particular cause.
Support Network: Talk to someone who supports you, for example: A family member or friend.
Physical exercise: Physical exertion can enhance self-image and release chemicals into the brain that trigger positive emotions.
Stress management



         A standard method to treat anxiety is psychological counseling. This may include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), psychotherapy or a combination of therapies.
         CBT aims to identify and modify the thought patterns associated with anxiety and embarrassing feelings, limit misunderstandings and change the way people react to the objects that trigger anxiety.
         For example, a person who takes CBT for panic disorder implies that panic attacks are not really heart attacks. CBT is an exposure-based therapy that encourages people to face their fears and reduce their sensitivity to the usual triggers of anxiety.
         Psychotherapy is another form of counseling. It consists of talking with a psychologist, a psychiatrist, a psychologist, a social worker or a trained counselor.
         Sessions can be used to explore the causes of anxiety and possible ways to overcome symptoms.


         Anxiety can be treated with different types of medications.
        In cases where anxiety has a physical cause, such as an imbalance in brain chemistry or hypertension, medications are prescribed to treat the underlying condition.
         Other medications are used to control some of the physical and mental symptoms, including antidepressants, benzodiazepines, tricyclics, and beta-blockers.
         Benzodiazepines are prescribed, but they can be very addictive. These medications tend to have few side effects, except drowsiness and possible dependence. Diazepam or Valium is an example of a commonly prescribed benzodiazepine.
         Antidepressants are widely used to treat anxiety, although they have been developed to treat depression. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used and have fewer side effects than older antidepressants. They always cause nervousness, nausea and sexual dysfunction at the beginning of treatment. Some antidepressants are fluoxetine or Prozac and citalopram or Celexa.
         Tricyclic agents are a class of older medications that have been shown to be effective for most anxiety disorders, except for OCD. It is known that these medications cause side effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth and weight gain. Two examples of tricycles are imipramine and clomipramine.
         Other drugs for the treatment of anxiety are:
         • monoamine oxidize inhibitors (MAO inhibitors)
         • Beta-blocker
         • Buspirone
         Tell your doctor about the side effects of prescription medications.
anxiety disorder


         Although anxiety disorders cannot be prevented and feelings of anxiety are still present in daily life, there are ways to reduce the risk of anxiety disorders in their own right.
         By completing the following steps, it helps maintain feelings of anxiety:
      • Reduces the consumption of caffeine, tea, cola, and chocolate.
         • Consult a doctor or pharmacist before using herbal or over-the-counter remedies to determine if they contain chemicals that can aggravate anxiety.
         • Maintains a healthy diet.
\         • Maintain a normal sleep pattern.
         • Avoid alcohol, cannabis and other drugs.
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